Eighteenth Century London: Richardson's Pamela
- General Criticism
- An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews
- Anti-Pamela: or, Feign’d Innocence Detected
- Memoirs of the Life of Lady H-, The Celebrated Pamela. From her Birth to the Present Time
Samuel Richardson was born in Derbyshire on the 19th of August and died on the 4th of July in 1761. Many facts of his life, before publishing Pamela, are unknown or unclear, since his life was not of high importance for the public. Nevertheless, from a letter to Stinstra, the Dutch translator of Richardson’s book Clarissa, we learn a couple of facts.
Richardson was allowed by his father to choose his profession when he was fifteen or sixteen years old. He chose to become a printer and worked as an apprentice for a period of seven years. Richardson’s reason to choose this profession was to satisfy his desire to read. After the apprenticeship he went on working as a compositor and corrector in the same company for five or six more years. After that period of time, he founded his own printing business. Most of his work was to write indexes, prefaces and dedications for authors.1 Richardson was, next to Caxton, another printer during that time, the greatest printer of English Literature.2 A couple of years before the publication of Pamela, he became the official printer for the House of Commons; this fact ensured a part of his wealth.3
In a letter to his friend Aaron Hill, Richardson describes how he came to write Pamela. Two well-known printers, Rivinton and Osborn, wanted him to write a conduct book that consists of a collection of familiar letters. Furthermore, he developed the notion of writing letters that are connected to each other. He remembered a story once told to him by a friend and wrote this story in a series of letters. This was the time, when the new form of novel, the epistolary novel, established.
Little did I think at first, of making one, much less two volumes of it. But, when I began to recollect what had, so many years before, been told me by my friend, I thought the story, if written in an easy and natural manner, suitable to the simplicity of it, might possibly introduce a new species of writing that might possibly turn young people into a course of reading different from the pomp and parade of romance-writing, and dismissing the improbable and marvellous, with which novels generally abound, might tend to promote the cause of religion and virtue. I therefore gave way to enlargement: and so Pamela became as you see her.4
Samuel Richardson is essentially to be named whenever it comes to the invention and the origin of the genre novel and its sub-form, the epistolary novel.5
The epistolary novel is characterized by the unique style it is written in. By giving a series of letters, a plot is introduced to the reader. The sources of information can also have the form of diary entries. The letters can either be written by one or by several characters.
This new way of writing allowed the reader a much greater and more intimate access to the character’s thoughts, actions, fears and emotions. The writing to the moment, which means that the letters were written at the same moment as a character made up his or her mind about the problems mentioned in the letter, adds to the readers’ identification with a certain situation and character.6 The readership of the mid-18th century was easy to be fascinated by this unknown form of story-telling.
“People were no longer completely satisfied either to see or to read the then existing dramas. Naturally, new forms of literary expression would be welcomed.”7
Already, at an early stage of writing his first ever epistolary novel, Samuel Richardson was sure of creating a special work. He also mentioned probable effects his invention might have on the readership. His book might:
[…]introduce a new species of writing, that might possibly turn young people into a course of reading different from the pomp and parade of romance-writing, and dismissing the improbable and marvellous, with which novels generally abound, might tend to promote the cause of religion and virtue.8
It was especially Samuel Richardson’s success Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded which led to the popularity and rise of the epistolary novel in the 18thcentury. Because of his role in the manifestation of the genre novel, it is him who is named as influential on authors such as Rousseau and Goethe.
The fifteen year old Pamela Andrews works as a servant in a wealthy household under Mrs. B. Mrs. B is very impressed by Pamela’s modesty, her natural grace and her keen perception, so that Mrs. B tries to raise her mannerly. The novel starts after Mrs. B’s death, this is learned by the reader in the first letter. Mrs. B has entrusted Pamela in her son’s, Mr. B, care, but instead of taking care of Pamela, he tries to seduce her. Mr. B tries to take advantage of her dependence, unscrupulously. Pamela’s parents give her advice to leave the household and to return to her parents’ house. When Pamela tries to leave, Mr. B kidnaps her and locks her up in one of his estates, which is monitored by Mrs. Jewkes and Monsieur Colbrand. Mr. B tries to seduce her with all his power, but Pamela always finds ways of escaping his attempts of seduction. Often, Pamela fakes to faint in order to escape Mr. B.
Pamela is not allowed to write letters to her parents, so she starts writing a diary that mirrors her experiences with Mr. B. When, at some point, Mr. B discovers Pamela’s diary he is suddenly overwhelmed of Pamela’s virtue and truthfulness. He feels a high level of remorse and gives her a chance to escape from his capture and develops true love for Pamela. He romances her until she admits herself to love Mr. B as well, and she agrees to marry him. In the end Pamela’s virtue is rewarded.
Samuel Richardson wanted to teach as well as to entertain with his novel Pamela. His main target group was the young generation of both sexes and he had the intention to illuminate certain behavioural reactions. By highlighting topics such as religion, virtue and morality, he expected the young readership to keep those values alive.9 In the novel he creates the character of a virtuous young woman who is blessed with intelligence, natural beauty and innocence. Pamela impresses her masters with honesty and a behaviour which was not associated with her low social status in the 18th century. Morality and religion play an important role in the novel. For example, this is shown by the way Pamela continually refuses to be the mistress of her master, Mr.B. He, again and again, attempts to seduce her. As the subtitle of the book says, her virtue is eventually rewarded as she wins equitable marriage into the upper-class and overcomes problems of accommodating herself in the new society. The majority of readers were young women who were fascinated and inspired by Richardson’s way of showing that morality, religion and virtue lead to a good life. The success of Pamela over the mature nobleman Mr.B and over the aristocratic, upper-class society puts gender and social roles into question. The story of Pamela shows and wants to highlight that barriers can be broken.10
The bestseller of its time, Pamela, can be seen as a multi-media event.
The fascination shows that brand extensions and the selling of merchandise products and cultural artefacts, as we know it from today’s worldwide media events, have a long history. Pamela became the topic in everyday life and especially women were seen as ignorant if they did not know everything about the story.11 Soon, the desire to get hold of merchandise products, which were created in honour of the book, became immense. Among these products were a famous fan, wax figures, a set of playing cards, prints and paintings.
Besides the consumer culture, which grew up around Pamela, there was the development of advertisement. Due to new printing methods a much larger number of pamphlets and posters could be given to the consumers, shops and published on advertising pillars. Newspapers were produced and sold in much larger numbers, as well. Of course, these new ways of attracting consumers were also used not only for the advertisement of the new editions of Pamela, but also for merchandise products.
This Day is publish’d
For the Entertainment of the Ladies, more especially those who have the Book, PAMELA, a new Fan, representing the principal Adventures of her Life, in Servitude, Love and Marriage. Design’d and engraven by the best Masters. Sold by M. Gamble, at her Warehouse, No.19, in Plough-Court, Fetter Lane; and at all the Fan-Shops and China-Shops in and about London.12
This advertisement includes the direct addressing of the target group and the fan is said to have been a successfully sold voguish accessory. The Ladies who were so fascinated with everything around Pamela needed to get one of those fragile paper fans of which no copy is known to have survived until today.13
Other merchandise products were wax-works. These were, for example, shown at an exhibition near Richardson’s Salisbury Court premises for several months in 1745, representing scenes of the book.14 There were miniatures of wax figures, as well, which were used as decoration in wealthy households. Even a set of playing cards was designed. Each card was decorated with lines of Richardson’s work. Nowadays, it appears just natural that teenagers decorate the walls of their bedrooms with posters and pictures of their idols, such as rock bands. This behaviour is similar to that of the mid-18th century. The multi-media event around Pamela and the immense demand for illustrations caused a kind of mass production of prints as copies of drawings and paintings. These copies were made available at a much cheaper price than the rare paintings of scenes of the book. The paintings were shown at exhibitions.
By these examples, one can see the hype which developed around Richardson’s Pamela. From today’s perspective and with all the campaigns in mind, which are launched to advertise and promote new movies or newly released music albums, it is surprising to see this very early example of consumer culture.
Pamela was first published on November 6th in 1740. The available copies were quickly sold, so that Richardson had to announce the publication of a second edition in January of the following year. It appeared on the market on February 14th 1741. The exact total number of copies of the second edition remains unknown, but Richardson was not able to produce the copies on his own. It is this fact that gives evidence of the large number of copies, as it was unusual to give part of the production into the hands of another press. Only four weeks later, the third edition with an estimated number of 3000 copies was released, but this number did not prevent Richardson from ordering a fourth edition. Less than two months after the third, the fourth edition appeared. It seems as if Richardson now understood the measure of demand as the fifth edition which was published on September 22nd 1741 did not need to be replaced until 1746. On October 18th 1746 the sixth and last edition of Pamela was published.
To give an idea of the total number of copies sold, there is an estimate of 20000 copies until the end of 1741. It took just over a year to reach this high number.
As libraries were not yet installed in the way we know it, it was common to share books among friends, neighbours or families. So, the number of sold copies does not actually represent the number of people who read them or knew about the content.15
On January 1st 1741 an interesting event took place as the first Irish edition was published by Faulkner and Ewing. The advertisement said:
As the Demand for this Book is expected be very great, it is hoped Gentlemen will be pleased to send Silver, as it will be very difficult to provide Change.16
In between the publications of the fifth and sixth edition there were two more events of importance. On October 23rd 1741 an authorized French translation with a total of 1500 copies appeared. These translations were used nationwide as course books at school.17 Another interesting point concerning the different editions is the publication of the octavo edition on May eighth 1742. An updated edition of Pamela was for the first time simultaneously published with an edition of the continuation of Pamela and 29 engravings by Gravelot and Hayman were attached.18
It was the popularity of the novel and the range of social classes in the readership which caused much public debate about the style of the book. Richardson used each newly published edition to respond to the criticism and to meet the demands of his target groups. The most significant changes can be found in the vocabulary used by Pamela. In the first edition her register is that of the lower-classes which changed to that of middle-classes in later editions. Like this, her marriage into the upper-class appeared less scandalous. Richardson also used his revisions to change the prefaces and to include illustrations.19
There were different kinds of reactions towards Pamela. On the one hand the reactions were of a positive nature and on the other hand of negative nature. Both kinds of reactions were, for example, expressed in poems, paintings, newspaper articles, or other books. To look at the reactions in more detail, one must understand the criticism that occurred in reaction to Richardson’s Pamela. There were two extreme standpoints. Those who reacted in favour of Richardson’s work liked the idea of Pamela being a role model for all young women. A large group of readers from all social classes agreed with the suggestion that virtue, morality and religion should be the leading values when it comes to the education of young women. Above all, the lower classes of society gained self-esteem from the fact that the main character of this multi-media event was one of them. It was easy for them to identify with Pamela and the success of the book helped to change their image in society. People of the lower classes were often associated with beggars, prostitutes and criminals, but the broad masses which got hold of the book now had to accept that morality and virtue were not restricted to the upper classes.20 In addition to that, the book criticised the manifested gender roles. The courage of young Pamela to reject her masters attempts of seduction and her eventual success strengthened the role of womanhood.21
On the other hand, there were many negative reactions to the book. Mainly, parts of the aristocratic readers could not accept the virtuous role which was given to the lower classes and remained with their attitudes. The idealisation of lower classes’ behaviour versus the downfall of the high-society could not be tolerated. Although, Richardson said the story was based on real events, one suspected him of making up the whole story. The critical readership found many details in the book in which the character of Pamela appears extremely hypocritical and not virtuous at all. People got the impression that she consciously used her beauty and intelligence to manipulate the main male characters for her own advantage. For example, by constantly refusing a liaison, Pamela appeared to know about the effects on Mr.B. Here, sexuality plays an important role of criticism. Different from Richardson’s interpretation, these critics see sexuality as omnipresent in the book. One spoke of a double-morality of the book.
As a result, the readership was split into supporters, Pamelists, and opponents, Anti-Pamelists.22 The criticism and discussion between these two parties made its way to the public and appeared in many different forms in every-day-life of that time.
There were responses in a poetic way to Pamela. People from all parts of society wrote poems, it were not only rich and professional people. Since print media got more and more available in forms of newspapers, for example, it was also possible to publish works written from amateurs.
The first poem published was written by Aaron Hill and appeared first in the second edition of Pamela on the 14th February in 1741. Afterwards, this poem was also published in the newspaper Weekly Miscellany on the 28th of February in 1740.
Let snarling Critics, and censorious Fools
Who cramp the Genius with pedantic Rules,
Thy well-formed Plan with Arrogance despise,
Call Virtue Art, and Innocence but Lyes.23
This poem shows in all clarity that firstly there are two extremes, the Pamelists and the Anti-Pamelists, arguing with each other in public. Secondly it shows that the topics raised in Pamela are controversial in society and therefore of public interest.
Another poem published in the Gentleman’s Magazine on the 7th April in 1741 identified Samuel Richardson indirectly as the author of Pamela. This poem was firstly published in another newspaper and was then taken up by the Gentleman’s Magazine, without crediting the original source. This kind of piracy happened often during that time, since copyright had not been established, yet. Nevertheless, piracy increased income and ensured a fast opportunity to reprint new information.
Since printers with such pleasing nature write,
And since so aukardly your scribes indite,
Be wise in time, and take a friendly hint;
Let printers write, and let your writers print.24
This poem deals with rumours about who wrote Pamela, as the novel had been published anonymously at first. It implies that the author of Pamela is already known, and satirically hints to the point that Pamela is to be seen as a great piece of work.25 If there were people who did not know that Richardson was the author of Pamela, then these people would have had developed more interest in the topic.
Since this poem is not concerned with any content of the novel, but rather with connected background information, this poem shows that there was a public interest in Pamela and everything that was connected to Pamela. The public wanted to know everything about this book and its background.
The reactions to the novel included a certain desire for seeing the face of Pamela and other characters of the book. The readers could not wait to see her face and so paintings and engravings turned into yet another part of the overall multi-media event which went with the publication of the adaptations and the following editions of the original book. Pamela was painted in different stations of her life and many motives were repeated or modified by different artists. There appeared to be a competition between them.
As there was no severe copyright, at first there were various piracies which introduced illustrations and hence were successfully sold to the curious readership. The Life of Pamela and another piracy, also called Pamela, are the most famous examples. Many different painters and engravers made good business. When Samuel Richardson heard about the demand for pictures and learned about the success of the piracies, he decided to add illustrations to his book. He officially commissioned Hubert Gravelot and Francis Hayman, who were famous painters of that time. They produced 29 engravings for Richardson´s publications.26
In May 1742, the first illustrated edition of Pamela, the octavo edition, appeared on the market.27
In the 18th century, print and with it the medium of newspapers made huge steps in their development. The fast growth of the number of printing houses and publishers caused the rise of the popular press. Many different newspapers were more frequently made available at more and more shops all over London and in other cities. A countrywide network of newspapers was installed and the newspaper became a powerful tool of communication. Literacy was no longer limited to the upper classes and so there was a large increase in the number of readers.28
Of course, there were people who knew about their advantages of now reaching such a big audience by this simple medium. Only a few people who worked on the particular newspapers had the power to decide what to write, what to comment on or which position to take in a discussion. They obviously wanted their publications to be the most wanted by the readership and looked for topics which interested the largest group of society. Samuel Richardson knew publishers of newspapers and cleverly used his connections. Many kinds of poems, criticisms and other reactions on Pamela were published in the papers. By doing so, Richardson kept his book in the focus of interest and discussion and reached an even bigger publicity.
“Pamela poems had appeared in the newspapers and magazines of London and Edinburgh…”29
An article by Given in his Gentleman’s Magazine, the market leader in monthly appearing collections of amateurs’ poetry, from January 1741 represents the amount of poems about Pamela which was sent to him to be published:
Several Encomiums on a Series of Familiar Letters, publish’d but last Month, Entitled PAMELA or Virtue rewarded, came too for this Magazine, and we believe there will be little Occasion for inserting them in our next; because A Second Edition will then come out to supply the Demands in the Country, it being judged in Town as great a Sign of Want of Curiosity not to have read Pamela, as not to have seen the French and Italian Dancers.30
The papers of that time did not include the same variety of articles as we know it from today’s papers. Often, the whole newspaper did only consist of one or two pages. Even if it was of larger extent, it did not only offer articles, news and opinions, but also announcements and advertisements. These mostly outweighed the articles by far and so the use of press was quickly turned from providing information into the use of advertising. By advertising a product, the public interest gets significantly increased.31
Samuel Richardson surely was one of those who understood the business of advertisement and his name is even related to market strategies.
“…,the scandalous rumours of Richardson’s involvement in illegitimate promotional strategies,…”32
Newspapers as a medium clearly played a role of extraordinary importance for this multi-media event. By using the widely spread press, Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded was kept in the focus of interest and controversial discussion for a long period of time.
There were a lot of written reactions towards Pamela in a rich variety of form. Many books appeared during a period of about ten years after the publication of the original book. Most books expressed a kind of criticism towards Richardson’s Pamela. To give a brief overview of the dimension of responses that were written, here is an overview of the first ten years after Richardson’s publication:
- 2nd April 1741, Fielding, Shamela
- 25th April 1741, Pamela Censured
- 28th May 1741, John Kelly, Pamela´s Conduct in High Life
- 16th June 1741, Eliza Haywood, Anti-Pamela
- 27th June 1741, James Parry, The True Anti-Pamela
- 12th September 1741, John Kelly, 2nd vol. Pamela´s Conduct in High Life
- 17th November 1741, Henry Giffard, Pamela. A Comedy
- 23rd November 1741, Charles Povey, The Virgin in Eden
- 4th December 1741, Memoirs of the Life of Lady H-, the Celebrated Pamela
- 7th December 1741, Samuel Richardson, Pamela in Her Exalted Condition (Richardson´s continuation of Pamela: Virtue Rewarded)
- 1741, The Life of Pamela
- 22nd February 1742, Fielding, Joseph Andrews
- 18th March 1742, Eliza Haywood, The Virtuous Villager
- 7th April 1742, Fielding, Miscellanies
- 21st June 1742, Eliza Haywood, A Present for a Servant Maid
- 8th September 1748, The Parallel: or, Pilkinton and Phillips Compared
Even after this period of approximately ten years there were more pieces of works published concerned with the original novel, but the first written novels reflect the fact that there was a huge response and a massive demand in public of everything concerning Pamela.
It is Fielding’s Shamela that is without doubt the most important counter fiction of the original. Shamela is also the first response published after Richardson’s novel. Other examples of importance are Eliza Haywood´s Anti-Pamela and Memoirs of the Life of Lady H-. These two examples are of importance because on the one hand they show that authors tried to capitalize from the hype of Pamela. On the other hand, shortly after the publication, there was a hype about the topics in Pamela, as a result the public asked for other books concerned with Pamela. The demand in society grew as the topic was omnipresent.
An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews was published anonymously on the 2nd of April in 1741 by Fielding. This was only five months after the first publication of Richardson’s original novel. Shamela is to be seen as the most important piece of counter-fiction written as a response to Pamela. Fielding’s book is a parody of Pamela that is very close to the plot and characters of the original as well as to the form of the epistolary novel. Fielding turns all topics, such as sexuality, gender, literacy, morality, and class, upside down. In the end, Shamela, Fielding’s equivalent to Pamela, is represented as an immoral woman who tries to gain advantages through her sexuality. Mr. Booby, Fielding’s equivalent to Mr. B, is represented as a foolish character. Fielding himself wanted to show that Pamela’s real intention must be interpreted differently. Therefore, Fielding tried to expose Richardson´s characters.33
Anti-Pamela, written by Eliza Haywood, was published on the 16th of June 1741, anonymously. The publication was only eight month after Richardson´s publication of Pamela and only two month after Fielding’s publication of Shamela. Since Anti-Pamela is to be seen as a critical response to both of these two books, it is obvious that Richardson’s epistolary novel has an outstanding impact on society. The title, Anti-Pamela, was probably borrowed from James Parry’s book, The true Anti-Pamela, which was published eleven days after Haywood’s piece of writing. Parry had launched two advertisements for his book, where the name Anti-Pamela appeared.34 In Anti-Pamela there are topics such as sexual hypocrisy and class mobility, but the characters are very different from Richardson’s book. The heroine in Haywood’s book finds all her suitors sexually repulsive, nevertheless, she tries to climb up the social ladder by trying to marry upward. Therefore, critics say, that Haywood´s book was only written to capitalise from the hype of Pamela and Shamela.35
This book was published anonymously on December the 4th in 1741. It dealt with the question whether Richardson’s Pamela had lived in real life. It is likely that the author wanted to profit from the hype of Richardson’s novel and therefore the author raised another point of discussion in his book which appeared of interest to many readers.36 The question whether the character of Pamela had existed in real life or not. In the first edition of Pamela, Richardson himself gave information in the preface that this story had happened in a thirty year period of time before publication. Later, in the first publication of the continuation of Pamela, Richardson states that the story is based on real people and events. Richardson only claims that characters’ names and places have been changed, due to avoiding offending the real people.37
The author of Memoirs of the Life of Lady H- claims that Richardson’s Pamela is Lady Hesilrige. Lady Hesilriges suitor is Arthur Hesilrige, seventh Baronet of Northamton. There were a lot of dates, such as the wedding date and the dates when they lived, in common with the dates Richardson gave in Pamela. Since there are many other examples of women which shared parallels to the life of Richardson’s Pamela during that time, it cannot be said for sure that Arthur Hesilrige and Lady Hesilrige are the basis for Richardson’s Pamela.38 Also the fact that Richardson himself never admitted that these two characters are his role models to his novel, indicates that there is no parallel. The fact that there are authors writing books about speculations, whether Richardson’s novel was based on real events, emphasises the fact that it was of high importance to the people and that there was an urge for the public to gain as much information about Pamela as they could. It also indicates that writers wanted to capitalise from the public interest on Pamela.
During the time Richardson’s novel was published, there was a lack of clarity about the question of copyright. A law as such had not been introduced yet. Verses that appeared in a newspaper on one day, for example, could often be found in a different newspaper the following issue, without crediting the source.39 It was also common that piracies of a book appeared. It was similar with Richardson’s Pamela.40 The first piracy appeared in May 1741. This piracy was published in London by Mary Kingman and was a copy of the fourth edition of Pamela. The fourth edition had been published on the 5th of May 1741. Since it is not clear when exactly the piracy appeared, one cannot determine the days it took to print a piracy. Nevertheless, the period of time from the publication date of the fourth edition and the distribution of the piracy was less than a month.
There are different examples of piracies. Richardson’s continuation of Pamela was published on the 7th of December 1741. A pirated edition was published in Dublin by Faulkner and Ewing on the 28th of December in 1741. Again it took less than a month until the first piracy of the original text appeared.41
The fact that there were a lot of piracies available obviously hints at the fact that other printers wanted to profit from Richardson´s novel, as well. It also suggests that there was a huge demand for this novel in public.
When one looks at the period of about five to ten years after Pamela had been published, one can hardly misinterpret all responses to that novel. All resources available during that period of time were used as communication channels to deal with Pamela, the topics raised in the novel, advertising that novel or following novels, or arguing about the novel´s conclusion. We have introduced a lot of evidence, such as poems, illustrations, newspaper articles and counter-fiction that all had the purpose to discuss Richardson´s epistolary novel.
Also, we have seen the merchandising strategies that included different sorts of editions, merchandise products and advertisements. Here it is worth mentioning that the demand for such articles clearly shows the desire of the public to identify oneself with Pamela and her morality.
Looking at today’s media events, we find an examination of a particular topic presented on all communication channels available. There will be, to name only a few examples, TV-shows, magazines, computer games, merchandise products, advertisement. The fact that this all happened in the mid-18th century, with all resources then available makes it clear that the publication of Richardson’s Pamela launched a multi media event. As Thomas Keymer writes:
“It would be little exaggeration to say that the brilliance of Pamela lay as much in commercial strategy as in literary achievement.”421 Alan DugaldMcKillop, Samuel Richardson: Printer and Novelist (North Carolina: The Shoe String Press, 1960) 4-6
2 Godfrey Frank Singer, The Epistolary Novel (New York: Russell and Russell, 1963) 64
3 Thomas Keymer, Peter Sabor, Pamela in the Marketplace: Literary Controversy and Print Culture in Eighteenth-Century Britain and Ireland (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) 18
4 Elizabeth Bergen Brophy, Samuel Richardson: The Triumph of Craft (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1974) 4.
5 Singer 62.
6 Thomas Keymer, Peter Sabor, The Pamela Controversy: Criticism and adaptations of Samuel Richardson’s Pamela 1740-1750, Volume 1.: Richardson’s apparatus and Fielding’s Shamela Verse responses (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2001) xiv.
7 Singer 62.
8 Bergen Brophy 4.
9 Keymer, Sabor,“Volume 1”3.
10 H.Str, „Kindlers neues Literatur-Lexikon“, Samuel Richardson: Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded: ed. Jens Walter (München: Kindler, 1996) 100.
11 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 3.
12 Keymer, Sabor,“Pamela in the Marketplace” 143.
13 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 144.
14 Keymer, Sabor,“Volume 1” xxviii.
15 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 20.
16 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” xxii.
17 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” xxv.
18 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” xxvi.
19 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 29.
20 Tim Hitchcock, “A Concise Companion to the Restoration and Eighteenth Century“, The Streets: Literary Beggars and the Realities of Eighteenth-Century London, ed. Cynthia Wolf (Malden: Blackwell Publications, 2005) 86f.
21 Hannah Barker, Elaine Chalus, eds. Women´s History: Britain, 1700-1850 (London: Routledge, 2005) 4-6.
22 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” xvii.
23 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 41.
24 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 43.
25 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 43.
26 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 143f.
27 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” xxvi.
28 Paul Goring, Eighteenth-Century Literature and Culture (London: 2008) 9-11.
29 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 3.
30 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 42.
31 Goring, 9-11.
32 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 16.
33 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” 49.
34 Thomas Keymer, Peter Sabor, The Pamela Controversy: Criticism and adaptations of Samuel Richardson´s Pamela 1740-1750, Volume 3.: Eliza Haywood, Anti Pamela, Memoirs of the Life of Lady H- (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2001) xi.
35 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 3” xi.
36 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 3” xxv.
37 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 3” xxvii.
38 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 3” xxviii.
39 Keymer, Sabor, “Pamela in the Marketplace” 43.
40 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” xxiii.
41 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” xxv.
42 Keymer, Sabor, “Volume 1” xv.
Bergen Brophy. Elizabeth. Samuel Richardson The Triumph of Craft. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1974.
Singer, Godfrey Frank. The Epistolary Novel. New York: Russell and Russell, 1963.
Barker, Hannah. & Chalus, Elaine. eds. Women´s History: Britain, 1700-1850. London: Routledge, 2005.
Str,H. „Kindlers neues Literatur-Lexikon“. Samuel Richardson: Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded: Ed. Jens Walter. München: Kindler, 1996. 99-101.
Goring, Paul. Eighteenth-Century Literature and Culture. London: 2008.
Keymer, Thomas. & Sabor, Peter. Pamela in the Marketplace: Literary Controversy and Print Culture in Eighteenth-Century Britain and Ireland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Keymer, Thomas. & Sabor, Peter. The Pamela Controversy: Criticism and adaptations of Samuel Richardson´s Pamela 1740-1750, Volume 1.: Richardson´s apparatus and Fielding´s Shamela Verse responses. London: Pickering and Chatto, 2001.
Keymer, Thomas. & Sabor, Peter. The Pamela Controversy: Criticism and adaptations of Samuel Richardson´s Pamela 1740-1750, Volume 3.: Eliza Haywood, Anti Pamela, Memoirs of the Life of Lady H-. London: Pickering and Chatto, 2001.
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